Dr. Ela Bauer is Associate Professor in the film & media and history departments at Kibbutzim College in Tel Aviv. Her professional interests are the intellectual and cultural life of Polish Jewry in the 19th and 20th centuries and the history of the Jewish press. Her book, Between Poles and Jews: The Development of Nahum Sokolow's Political Thought, was published in 2005 at Magnes Press, Jerusalem. Her recent research is about Polish Jewish intelligentsia groups in Warsaw and Lwów at the last decades of the 19th century. Her latest articles are about Poles and, Jews at the beginning of WWI, the development of Jewish literature of the Masses in Warsaw at the Late Nineteenth Century'.